Direct descendancy of eight Mayflower voyage passengers and twenty-two Plymouth Colony pilgrims, with their arrival beginning in 1621.

The Mayflower Society has verified that eight of my father’s grandparents were passengers on the ship Mayflower (1620); in addition, three grandparents migrated on the ship Fortune (1621); and four additional grandparents were on the ship Anne (1623). From the offspring of these first-generation Massachusetts pilgrims and the subsequent family member migrations to New England during the 1600’s, my father’s family has 240 grandparents who participated in the establishment of this country in the 17th century. The first-generation Mayflower passengers and Plymouth Colony members are as follows:

(A) The ship Mayflower reached Cape Cod on November 21, 1620.

    1. Isaac Allerton (b. 1586–1659), who signed the Mayflower Compact and married Mary Norris-Allerton, the father of Mary Allerton, was all three aboard the ship Mayflower. Pilgrim shipping records list Isaac making three separate trips from Europe to Cape Cod (aboard Mayflower, White Angel in 1628, and Lyon in 1629). After relocating to the New Haven Colony (Connecticut) and subsequently buying more land in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (lower Manhattan), he was appointed to the Eight Men, an early citizen’s advisory board, in 1643 by then Director of New Netherland Willem Kieft. That was an early form of representational democracy in colonial North America.,,,
    2. Mary Norris-Allerton (b. 1590–1621), married to Isaac Allerton, and mother of Mary Allerton, all aboard the ship Mayflower.
    3. Mary Allerton (b. 1617–1699), daughter of Mary Sr. and Isaac, married Thomas Cushman, who traveled with his father aboard the ship Fortune, see below. Mary was the last surviving member of the passengers aboard the Mayflower; she passed away on November 28, 1699.
    4. Richard Warren (b. 1583–1628), who signed the Mayflower Compact, was the husband of Mary Warren, and father to their daughter Elizabeth, who both traveled together aboard the ship Anne
    5. Thomas Rogers (b. 1571–1621), who signed the Mayflower Compact, was the father of Joseph Rogers, who was also a passenger aboard the Mayflower.
    6. Joseph Rogers (b. 1603–1678), age 17, was the son of Thomas Rogers, a Mayflower passenger.
    7. Stephen Hopkins (b. 1581–1644), who signed the Mayflower Compact and previously sailed aboard the ship Sea Venture in 1608, was a shipwrecked and co-discoverer of Bermuda, a Jamestown resident and massacre survivor, and the father of Constance Hopkins, another Mayflower passenger. Anecdote: Stephen Hawkins was the only passenger on Mayflower who had lived in the Jamestown Virginia Colony prior to landing in Cape Cod with the Plymouth Pilgrims.
    8. Constance Hopkins (b. 1606–1677), daughter of Stephen Hopkins, married Nicholas Snow, who traveled aboard the ship Anne

The importance of the Mayflower Compact is immeasurable, as it laid the foundation for the creation of the Declaration of Independence and then the Constitution of the United States.

(B) On November 9, 1621, the ship Fortune arrived at Cape Cod in place of the Speedwell, which expert historians believe the captain sabotaged.

    1. Robert Cushman (b. 1577–1325), Church Deacon & Chief Agent and organizer in London for the Leiden Separatist contingent from 1617 to 1620 and later for Plymouth Colony.
    2. Reverend Thomas Cushman Sr. (b. 1608–1691), Robert’s son, married Mary Allerton, who was a passenger aboard the ship Mayflower.
    3. Stephen Deane (b. 1605–1634), married to Elizabeth Ring, who was a passenger aboard the ship Confidence in 1931,

(C) The ship Anne reached Cape Cod in 1623.

    1. Robert Bartlett (b. 1603–1676) married Mary Warren, who was also aboard the ship Anne
    2. Mary Warren (b. 1610–1683), the daughter of Elizabeth Walker-Warren, also traveling aboard the ship Anne (see below), and Richard Warren, who traveled aboard the ship Mayflower (see above), married Robert Bartlett, who was also aboard the ship Anne.
    3. Elizabeth Walker-Warren (b. 1583–1673), married to Richard Warren, who was a passenger aboard the ship Mayflower, and mother to Mary Warren, who was also aboard the ship Anne,
    4. Nicholas Snow (b. 1599–1676) married Constance Hopkins, who traveled aboard the ship Mayflower.


Additional Massachusetts Bay Colony Pilgrims (arrival to colony after ships Mayflower, Fortune, & Anne) who have notable historical records and that my father has direct descendancy:

    1. Governor Tristram Coffin Sr. (b. 1608–1681), father of Peter Coffin, was one of the founders of Nantucket; he had estates in England, owning property in Dorset and Devon. Unlike the Leiden Congregation, which was the collective of the Plymouth Colony, he was an established English gentleman and not a Puritan. He left for New England at age 37 in the year of crisis between Charles I and Parliament, bringing with him his wife, five children, his mother, and two of his unmarried sisters. In 1658, Tristram formed a company with his son, Peter, for the purchase of Nantucket and moved there in 1659.
    2. Peter Coffin (b. 1630–1715). Son of Governor Tristram Coffin, Sr., he and seven others bought Nantucket Island in 1969 for the price of 30 pounds and two beaver hats. He settled on the eastern slope of what is now called Trott’s Hills. The Coffin House is a historic Colonial American house operated as a non-profit museum by Historic New England
    3. Major-General Humphrey Atherton (b. 1608–1661). Held the highest military rank in colonial New England, representative in the General Court, was Speaker of the House representing Springfield, Massachusetts, Assistant Governor, magistrate, judiciary of colonial government, member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts, and held the rank of Major-General. He also organized the first militia in Massachusetts.
    4. Thomas Tupper Sr. (b. 1578–1676), a ship carpenter (thus, as a crew member, he was not listed amongst passengers), is believed to have visited the Plymouth Colony for the first time in 1621 aboard the ship Fortune, a second time in 1624 aboard the ship Charity, and a third time in 1631 aboard the ship Abigail, from which he stayed. He became a member of the general courts of Sandwich, a deputy, and a town council selectman.
    5. Benjamin & Katherine Nye, (b. 1620–1704, 1623–?), Benjamin Nye Homestead and Museum, Sandwich, Massachusetts,
    6. Judge Peter Burr (b. 1668–1724), Harvard College graduate class of 1690, Major of Militia, Fairfield County, Connecticut, Auditor of the Colony, Deputy of Fairfield, Speaker of the House, Assistant in the Government, Councilor to the French and Indian War, Justice of the Peace, Judge of Probate for Fairfield, Judge of County Court, Judge of Superior Court, and Chief Judge of Superior Court. None of the Commonwealth leaders could surpass or even come close to matching his influence for good in the colony, nor could they match his accomplishments or public service.
    7. hold


Direct descendancy to twelve Jamestown colonists, the first permanent English settlement in North America, with their arrival beginning in 1608.,_Virginia

My mother’s family is directly descendant of twelve grandparents known and recognized as members of the Jamestown Colony and are verified ancestors of the Jamestown Society. From these first-generation Virginia pilgrims, their offspring, and the subsequent family member migrations to the Virginia Territory in the 1600’s, my mother’s family has 182 grandparents who participated in the establishment of this country in the 17th century. The first generation of Jamestown colonists is as follows:

    1. Thomas Graves Esq. (b. 1580–1636), Burgess, original stockholder in Virginia Company of London, member Smith’s Hundred (an original James River plantation), Burgess, ancient planter, arrived in Jamestown with Second Supply ship Mary & Margaret, in 1608. Husband to Katherine Graves. Father of Verlinda Graves-Stone.
    2. Katherine Graves (b. 1586–1636), wife of Thomas Graves, maiden name and history unknown, was the mother of Verlinda Graves, who married Governor William Stone.
    3. Lt. Edward Waters (b. 1588–1630), sailed on the ship Sea Venture in 1608, shipwrecked and co-discoverer of Bermuda, Governor of Bermuda, Jamestown Burgess, Jamestown Massacre captive and survivor. Husband of Grace Neal. Father of William Waters.
    4. Grace Neale (b. 1604–1683), wife of Capt. Edward Waters, mother of William Waters, sailed to Jamestown, Virginia, on the ship Diane in 1618 at the age of 16, Jamestown Massacre captive and survivor.
    5. William Waters, Governor, Major Northampton County Militia, son of Capt. Edward Waters & Grace Neale, husband to Margaret Robins.
    6. Margaret Robins-Waters (b. 1625–1665), wife of Governor Waters, daughter of Mr. Obedience Robins (second husband to Grace Neal-Waters after the death of Lt. E. Waters).
    7. Col. Obedience Robins (b. 1600–1662), Governors Council and Chairman, Burgess, Commander of Accomack Co., second husband to Grace Neal-Waters after the death of Lt. E. Waters.
    8. Stephen Hawkins (b. 1581–1644), Bermuda shipwrecked castaway, co-discoverer of Bermuda, massacre survivor, Mayflower passenger, signed the Mayflower Compact, and was also the father of Constance Hopkins, Mayflower passenger. Anecdote: Stephen Hawkins was the only passenger on Mayflower who had visited the Virginia Colony prior to landing in Cape Cod.
    9. Governor William Maximillian Stone (b. 1603–1660), Governor of the Province of Maryland, married Verlinda Graves (daughter of Thomas & Katherine Graves), sailed aboard the Margaret arriving in 1619, one of the original settlers of the Berkeley Hundred in Charles City Shire, a Virginia and Maryland colonist.
    10. Verlinda Graves-Stone (b. 1618–1675), wife of Governor William Stone, daughter of Thomas & Katherine Graves, a Virginia and Maryland colonist.
    11. Captain Raleigh Crowshaw Esquire (b. 1580–1624), a member of the London Company and an ancient planter, Burgess, arrived in Jamestown with Second Supply in 1608, an ancient planter. Wife and mother of children, unnamed and unknown.
    12. Major Joseph Croshaw (b. 1610–1667), son of Capt. Crowshaw, educated in England, Justice of the Court York County, Burgess, Assemblyman, Sheriff, Royalist who opposed the rule of Oliver Cromwell (a great uncle as my father is a direct descendant of Robert Cromwell, Oliver’s father).
    13. hold

Direct Descendancy to Maryland Colonist, Arrival Beginning in 1648 (under development)

    1. John Stone (b. 1642–1698), son of Governor Maximillian Stone and Verlinda Graves-Stone.
    2. Elinor Bayne-Stone (b. 1668–1717), wife of John Stone.
    3. Walter Bayne (b. 1616-1670), father of Elinor Bayne-Stone, immigrated in 1648 and became Charles County Appraiser, Justice of the Peace, Provincial Court Juror, and plantation owner of 1,450 acres in St. Mary’s County, 300 acres in Charles County on the Wicomico River, 300 acres on the Patuxent River, and 750 acres near Portobacco Creek.
    4. Elinor Weston-Bayne (b. 1616–1701), wife of Walter Bayne and mother of Elinor Bayne-Stone, immigrated to Charles County in 1648.
    5. Peter Joseph Joy (b. 1628–1686), husband of Monica Louise Golson-Joy.
    6. Monica Louise Golson-Joy (b.?–1672), wife of Peter Joseph Joy, administered his estate in 1686 in Calvert County.
    7. Governor William Maximillian Stone (b. 1603–1660), Governor of the Province of Maryland, married Verlinda Graves (daughter of Thomas & Katherine Graves), sailed aboard the Margaret arriving in 1619, one of the original settlers of the Berkeley Hundred in Charles City Shire, a Virginia and Maryland colonist. Father of John Stone, a first-generation Maryland colonist.
    8. Verlinda Graves-Stone (b. 1618–1675), wife of Governor William Stone, daughter of Thomas & Katherine Graves, a Virginia and Maryland colonist. Mother of John Stone, a first generation Maryland colonist.
    9. hold


Post colonial ancestry of notable interest (under development)

My father, Clyde Wayne Nichols (b. 1931)

    1. While employed at Stanford Linear Accelerator in 1976, he contributed to the research that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the Tau Lepton.
    2. While employed at Stanford Linear Accelerator in 1974, he contributed to the research that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of a heavy elemental particle of a new kind, the Charm Quark.
    3. While employed as Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1968, he contributed to the research that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics for the Decisive Contributions to Elementary Particle Physics. In particular, the discovery of a large number of resonant states was made possible through the development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chambers and data analysis.


Pre-Colonial direct descendant ancestry from continental Europe with notable education (under development)

  1. Sir Patrick de Hepburn (b. 1340–1402), Haddingtonshire, Scotland. He received safe conduct (travel credentials and stamps) from King Edward III of England in 1364 to pursue his studies at Oxford University.
  2. Edward Mann (b. 1618–1680), St. Mary at Quay, Ipswich, Suffolk, England, Cambridge University
  3. Thomas John Perkes (b. 1603–1653), Gnosall, Staffordshire, England, Oxford University
  4. Joseph Lascombe Richards (b. 1550–1628), Oxfordshire, England, Oxford University
  5. hold

Pre-Colonial direct descendant ancestry from continental Europe with notable political & military participation (under development)

Sir Robert Hepburn, Hepburn of Alderston, Scotland (b. 1580–1634?)

  1. Was the Captain of the Life-Guard for King James VI
  2. In 1602, she was granted the lands of Alderstoun, originally the property of the Preston of Craigmillar families, presumably passed to the Hepburns by marriage.
  3. His brother was the Burgess of Edinburgh.
  4. In 1610, he received 1500 acres in the county of Tyrone, precinct of Mountjoy.
  5. Was 1/3 barony of Morham and Northrig, as of July 21, 1623.


Sir Henry Williams-Cromwell (b. 1510–1543)

  1. Knighted by Queen Elizabeth in 1564.
  2. Member of the House of Commons (Parliament).
  3. Knight of the Shire, representing Huntingdonshire in Parliament.
  4. Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire.
  5. Married to Joan Warren (daughter of Lord Mayor of London, Sir Ralph Warren). Sir Henry and Joan are the parents of Sir Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.


The coat of arms of Sir Henry Williams-Cromwell.



Sir Richard Williams-Cromwell (b. 1510–1544)

  1. A Welsh soldier and courtier in the reign of King Henry VIII knighted him on May 2, 1540, during a tournament at Westminster, where he distinguished himself by his military skill and gallantry.
  2. He was a paternal descendant of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, Prince of Powys.
  3. Richard was brought into the court of King Henry VIII, where he was active in suppressing the Pilgrimage of Grace insurrection.
  4. In 1539, he was a gentleman of the privy chamber, having a private apartment at the Royal Residence in London.
  5. In 1539, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire.
  6. After war broke out with France in 1542, he joined Emperor Charles V to challenge King Francis I of France, and following the success of his participation in battle, King Henry VIII appointed him constable of Berkeley Castle in 1544.

The coat of arms of Sir Richard Williams-Cromwell.





Sir Patrick Hepburn, of Waughton and Luffness, Scotland, (b. 1495–1549), noted Scottish nobility.


Sir Kentigern Hepburn, Waughton Castle, Haddingtonshire, Scotland (b. 1470–1519)


Sir Ralph Warren (b. 1486–1553)

  1. Lord Mayor of London in 1536 and 1543.
  2. Knighted by Henry VIII in 1536.
  3. He was appointed Sheriff of London in 1528.
  4. He gave to the city of London one of the five ceremonial “City of London Swords” (believed to be the Pearl Sword).


Joan Trelake-Warren-White (b.?) married Sir Ralph Warren, and then five years after his death, she married Sir Thomas White, Alderman of London and founder of St. John’s College, Oxford.


Sir William “Earl of Pembroke” Marshall, (b. 1461–1219),_1st_Earl_of_Pembroke

  1. Counselor to King John, listed in the Preamble of the Magna Carta, in which he is a signatory as one of the witnessing barons.
  2. Member of the household of King Henry the Young King.
  3. Member of the household of King Henry II.
  4. Commander of the king’s household guard.
  5. Knighted in 1166 by King Henry II as, “William the Marshal, the Incomparable Knight”
  6. He was a prominent participant at King Richard I’s coronation, where he carried the gold scepter and cross.
  7. Was made Sheriff of Sussex
  8. On King Richard’s deathbed, the king designated Marshall as custodian of the royal treasure at Ruoen, Paris, during the interregnum (gap between monarchs).
  9. He oversaw King John’s funeral at Worcester and was an executor of his will.,_King_of_England
  10. He was present at the coronation of King Henry III.
  11. In 1216, he was chosen as Regent (person acting as Head of State) when King Henry III assumed the throne at nine years old, but not the governance of the kingdom.
  12. In 1217, he commanded the Royal forces in their victory over the rebels at the Battle of Sandwich and the French in the Battle of Lincoln.
  13. He concluded a peace treaty with France in 1217.
  14. He was formally made a member of the Knights Templar in fulfillment of a vow made on crusade.


The coat of arms of William Marshall


William Marshal Unhorses Baldwin Guisnes

William Marshal Unhorses Baldwin Guisnes


William Marshall Image 1

William Marshall Image from WikiTree


William Marshal - Effigy


Effigy of William Marshal


Temple Church, London.

Temple Church, London, was his burial place.


Sir David Hepburn of Waughton (b. 1450–1513), Scottish Nobility


Sir Patrick Hepburn (b. 1352–1402), Scottish Nobility

  1. He received safe conduct from Edward the Third of England in 1363 to visit the Tomb of St. Thomas of Canterbury and again in 1364 to pursue his studies at Oxford University.
  2. In historical literature, John of Fordun styled him “Miles magnanimus et athleta bellicosus’. With his father, he greatly contributed to the Scottish victory at Otterburn in 1388.
  3. He was defeated and killed at Nisbet Moor in West Nisbet, Berwickshire, fighting the Percies, by the Earl of March, who had turned traitor to his king and country. Hepburn, with the flower of the youth of East Lothian, fell in the battle, which took place on June 22, 1402.
  4. It is from this Patrick having had families with two wives that we see the family tree divide into the Hepburns of Hailes and the Hepburns of Waughton.


Pepin of Italy [born Carloman] (b. 777–810)

  1. King of Italy
  2. Crowned by Pope Hadrian I with the Iron Crown of Lombardy
  3. Liberated Corsica
  4. Son of Charlemagne (Holy Roman Emperor) and Hildegard
  5. Great-Grandson of Charles Martel (Roman Emperor)



Saint Angilbert (b. 760–814)

Poet and assistant in the government of Italy. Husband of Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne. He served as a secretary and diplomat to Charlemagne and interacted with Pope Adrian I, with whom he participated in three important embassies for the pope. He served as an officer in the maritime provinces. He was a great friend of the English scholar Alcuin. He retired to rebuild the Monastery of St. Richarius, at present-day Saint-Riquier in Picardy, where he was elected abbot of the monastery. Angilbert’s Latin poems reveal the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the closest intimacy with the imperial family.


Blessed Charlemagne the Great (b. 747–814)

Confessor and Holy Roman Emperor

    1. King of the Franks.
    2. King of the Lombards.
    3. Emperor of the Romans.
    4. Beatification is acknowledged.

An interesting discovery is that both my father and mother are independently related directly to Charlemagne and his second wife, Hildegard of the Vinzgau. My father’s family is directly descended from his son Pepin, who became the King of Italy (his wife is debated by historians), and my mother’s family is directly descended from her daughter Bertha. Bertha was married to the French poet and saint, Saint Angilbert of Ponthieu.,_daughter_of_Charlemagne


The coat of arms of Charlemagne.



Frederick II’s gold and silver casket for Charlemagne, the Karlsschrein


Bertrade of Laon, (b. 710–783)

  1. Queen of the Franks.
  2. Married to Pepin the Short, the King of Italy.
  3. Mother of Roman Emperor Charlemagne.
  4. Celebrated at the Palace of Versailles.



Pepin the Short, (b. 714–768)

  1. King of the Franks.
  2. Husband of Bertrade of Loan.
  3. Father of Roman Emperor Charlemagne.
  4. Son of Charles Martel, King of the Franks.



Charles Martel, (b. 676–741)

  1. Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace.
  2. Father of Pepin the Short, the King of Italy.
  3. Grandfather of Charlemagne, the Roman Emperor.
  4. Celebrated at the Palace of Versailles.
  5. Namesake of the Carolingian Dynasty




Saint Arnulf of Metz (b. 582–643)

  1. The great-grandfather of Charles Martel.
  2. Great-Great-Great Grandfather to Charlemagne.
  3. The Patron Saint of Brewers (true story).
  4. He was a Frankish bishop of Metz and advisor to the Merovingian court of Austrasia.
  5. He later retired to the Abbey of Remiremont.
  6. The Catholic Church venerates and considers Arnulf to be a saint.
  7. In iconography, he is typically portrayed with a pastoral staff or a rake in his hand.


Saint Clotilde (b. 474–545)

Queen of the Franks.

  1. He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church as well as by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  2. She was responsible for her husband, King Clovis, converting to Christianity from paganism and being baptized in 496, thus Christianizing the region.
  3. She is credited with helping her husband spread Christianity in Western Europe.
  4. In 502, she and her husband, King Clovis I, founded the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, Paris, where it became a center of religious scholarship where the first gospels were transcribed from oral traditions.
  5. They succeeded in uniting the majority of western and central Europe and Clovis was the first recognized emperor to rule from western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.


King Clovis I (b. 466–511)

  1. King of the Franks
  2. He was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of petty kings to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
  3. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries.
  4. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as “the first king of what would become France.”


Childeric I (b. 437–481)

  1. He was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a king (Latin rex), both on his Roman-style seal ring, which was buried with him, and in fragmentary later records of his life. He was the father of Clovis I, who acquired effective control over all or most Frankish kingdoms and a significant part of Roman Gaul.
  2. Gregory of Tours is one source that claims Merovech, the ancestor of the Merovingian dynasty, to have been Childeric’s father. According to Gregory, some people believed that Merovech was a descendant of Chlodio, an earlier Frankish king who had conquered Roman Gaulish regions first in the Silva Carbonaria, then in Tournai, Cambrai, and as far south as the Somme.
  3. In records about specific actions of Childeric himself, he is mainly associated with the Roman military actions around the Loire River, where he appears in records involving the Gallo-Roman general Aegidius. According to Gregory of Tours, Childeric was exiled to “Thuringia” for eight years due to Frankish distaste for his debauchery and his seduction of his subjects’ daughters. In the meantime, according to Gregory, Aegidius himself took up the title of king of the Franks. Upon his return from exile, Childeric joined his host’s wife, Queen Basina, who bore their son Clovis.


Merovech (b. 411–458)

  1. Was the ancestor of the Merovingian dynasty.
  2. He was reportedly a king of the Salian Franks, but records of his existence are mixed with legend and myth.
  3. The most important written source, Gregory of Tours, recorded that Merovech was said to be descended from Chlodio, a roughly contemporary Frankish warlord who pushed from the Silva Carbonaria in modern central Belgium as far south as the Somme, north of Paris in modern-day France.
  4. His supposed descendants, the kings Childeric I and Clovis I, are the first well-attested Merovingians.


Theodosius the Great (b. 347–395)

Roman Emperor

  1. Instrumental in establishing the Creed of Nicaea as the orthodox doctrine for Christianity.
  2. He was the last emperor to rule the entire Roman Empire before its administration was permanently split between the West and the East.
  3. The first Roman Emperor was baptized in 380 and was responsible for converting the Roman Empire to Christianity from Paganism.


Count Theodosius (b?–376)

Flavius Theodosius, also known as Count Theodosius or Theodosius the Elder, was a senior military officer serving Valentinian I and the western Roman empire during late antiquity. Under his command, the Roman army defeated numerous threats, incursions, and usurpations. Theodosius was patriarch of the imperial Theodosian dynasty and father of the emperor Theodosius the Great.

He was granted the title of comes rei militaris per Britanniarum (Commander of the Troops of the Diocese of Britain) by the emperor Valentinian for his work there, putting down the Great Conspiracy (367–368) and the usurpation of Valentinus. After restoring order in Britain, he returned to continental Europe and fought against the Alemanni. As Valentinian’s magister equitum (Master of Horse), he successfully invaded Alemannic territory (371 or 370). In 372, Theodosius led a successful campaign against the Sarmatians. In the same year, Firmus, a Mauritanian prince, rebelled against Roman rule. Theodosius was sent to Africa and, in two hard-fought campaigns (373–374), put down the insurrection. In 376, after the death of emperor Valentinian, he was arrested and executed, presumably as he was seen as a threat to the new western emperors Gratian and Valentinian II.

Theodosius’s Latin title comes rei militaris; ‘companion of soldiers’ affairs’ is related to Latin, from which the medieval European feudal title of count is derived.

  1. Patriarch of the imperial Theodosian dynasty.
  2. Father of the Emperor Theodosius.
  3. Senior military officer serving Emperor Valentinian I.
  4. Commander of the Troops of the Diocese of Britain’s.
  5. Was deified as a divinely sanctioned authority of the Roman State.